Ny

Wicca

Wicca


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Wicca er en moderne, naturbaseret hedensk religion. Selvom ritualer og praksis varierer blandt mennesker, der identificerer sig som Wiccan, omfatter de fleste observationer festivalens festligheder med solstice og equinoxes, æren af ​​en mandlig gud og en kvindelig gudinde og inkorporering af urtemedicin og andre naturlige objekter i ritualer. Wiccans praktiserer deres religion efter en etisk kodeks, og mange tror på reinkarnation.

HVAD ER WICCA?

Wicca betragtes som en moderne fortolkning af førkristne traditioner, selvom nogle involverede hævder en direkte linje til gammel praksis. Det kan praktiseres af enkeltpersoner eller medlemmer af grupper (undertiden kendt som covens).

Wicca har også nogle fællestræk med druidismen i sin miljøkomponent og betragtes som inspiration for gudindebevægelsen i spiritualitet.

Der er stor mangfoldighed blandt individer og grupper, der praktiserer en wiccan -religion, men mange er duoteistiske og tilbeder både en kvindelig gudinde og en mandlig gud (undertiden omtalt som en modergudinde og en horned gud).

Andre wiccanske skikke er ateister, panteister, polyteister eller respekterer guder og gudinder som arketypiske symboler snarere end som faktiske eller overnaturlige væsener. Ritualer i Wicca inkluderer ofte helligdage centreret omkring månens faser; soljævndøgn og solstice; elementer som ild, vand, jord og luft; og indvielsesceremonier.

MARGARET MURRAY

Ritualerne i moderne Wiccan-praksis kan spores til den berømte feminist i første bølge, egyptolog, antropolog og folklorist Margaret Murray.

Hun skrev flere bøger om middelalderlig religion centreret omkring heksekulter i middelalderens Europa, der inspirerede britiske søgende til at oprette deres egne covens og strukturere tilbedelse omkring hendes beskrivelser, begyndende med 1921’erne Heksekulten i Vesteuropa.

Senere bestred stipendiet Murrays påstande om heksekult, men hendes indflydelse kunne ikke slettes inden for Wicca.

GERALD GARDNER

Wicca fik først et navn i Gerald Gardners bog fra 1954 Trolddom i dag, hvor han annoncerede det som "wica", hvor det ekstra "c" blev tilføjet i 1960'erne. Ifølge Gardner stammede ordet fra skotsk-engelsk og betød "kloge mennesker".

Gardner, der betragtes som grundlæggeren af ​​Wicca, blev født i 1884, nord for Liverpool i England. En verdensrejsende med interesse for det okkulte, Gardner hørte første gang ordet "Wica" brugt i 1930'erne, da han blev involveret i en coven i Highcliffe, England. Han blev indviet i gruppen i 1939.

I 1946 købte Gardner jord i landsbyen Brickett Wood for at etablere et center for folkloristisk undersøgelse, der skulle tjene som hovedkvarter for en egen pagt.

Gardner døde af et hjerteanfald i 1964, mens han var ombord på et skib ud for den nordafrikanske kyst. Han blev begravet i Tunis. Kun skibets kaptajn deltog. I 1973 blev hans omfattende personlige samling af artefakter solgt til Ripleys Tro det eller ej.

ALEISTER CROWLEY

Gardner mødte den berømte okkultist Aleister Crowley i 1947. Da Gardner formelt skrev sine Wiccan -ritualer, trak han stærkt fra Crowleys egne, der dateres tilbage til 1912.

De to mænd havde lignende ideer. Crowley havde i 1914 foreslået ideen om at danne en ny religion, der ville trække fra gamle hedenske traditioner, der tilbad jorden, fejre jævndøgn og solhverv og andre kendetegn ved naturbaseret tilbedelse.

SKUGBOG

Gardners fantasyroman High Magic's Aid, udgivet i 1949, betragtes som en af ​​de første standarder for Wicca, men hans Book of Shadows, en samling trylleformularer og ritualer, er central for Wiccas praksis.

Skrevet i 1940'erne og 1950'erne blev indviede forpligtet til at lave deres egen kopi i hånden. Oprindelsen til titlen er ukendt, men nogle mener, at han lånte den fra den skotske børneforfatter Helen Douglas Adams værk.

DOREEN VALIENTE

Fremtidige Wiccan -leder Doreen Valiente mødte Gardner i 1952, da hun kontaktede ham efter en artikel i Illustreret blad, der præsenterede for deres læsere virkeligheden af ​​covens og deres praksis i en kontekst af normale, uddannede mennesker.

Under Gardners ledelse ville Valiente revidere Book of Shadows for mere populært forbrug, der fordrev Crowleys indflydelse. I 1957 sprang Valiente fra Gardners coven med andre medlemmer og rivaler til Gardner, der hver især opstod med en coven. Valiente ville blive en fremtrædende Wiccan -fortaler og lærd.

RAYMOND BUCKLAND

I 1963 indledte Gardner britisk udstationerede og Long Island -beboer Raymond Buckland, der grundlagde Gardnerian Brentwood Coven, betragtes som den første Wiccan -coven i USA.

Buckland blev en kraftig promotor for Wicca i USA og flyttede i 1970'erne til New Hampshire og udviklede Seax-Wica, som påkaldte angelsaksisk mytologi til Wiccan-praksis.

SYBIL porre

Sybil Leek var en populær i Wicca i Amerika. Påstod at være en arvelig heks, blev Leek involveret i New Forest coven i slutningen af ​​1940'erne, fortsatte sin praksis gennem flere covens i England, før han flyttede til USA og bosatte sig i Los Angeles.

Porrer forvandlede hendes Wiccan -praksis til berømthedsstatus centreret omkring astrologi, skrev mange bøger og en regelmæssig spalte i Ladies Home Journal.

ALEX SANDERS

Alex Sanders grundlagde en stamme kendt som Alexandrian Wicca i 1960'erne.

Kendt som en reklamesøger, katapulterede han til berømmelse efter en selvbiografi og en film i 1970, Legenden om heksene. Sanders kaldte "heksernes konge" og skubbede typisk myter om hans egen slægt, hævdede kongelige aner og påstod, at hans bedstemor ikke kun var en Wiccan, men havde lært en stamme af hekseri, der angiveligt stammer fra Atlantis, og involverede kong Arthur og Merlin.

Sanders tiltrak en yngre generation af tilhængere, og de lurede historier om ham anses for at have haft den effekt, at Wicca blev populær som en alternativ livsstil i 1970'erne.

LAURIE CABOT

Laurie Cabot, "heksen i Salem", begyndte at vinde opmærksomhed i USA i slutningen af ​​1960'erne og underviste i klasser på Salem State College og hjalp politiet med at løse sager.

Hendes okkulte butik i Salem er en af ​​de første i Amerika, og hun etablerede den populære hekseball. Guvernør Michael Dukakis erklærede hende for "den officielle heks i Salem" i 1977 og grundlagde i 1986 Witches League of Public Awareness.

WICCA OG FEMINISME

I 1970'erne blev den amerikanske version af Wicca omdannet fra den magiske baserede hedenske disciplin, der hævdede britisk arv til en naturligt baseret åndelig bevægelse, med tunge toner af miljøisme og feminisme. Til gengæld påvirkede dette religionen i England.

Den feministiske indflydelse i Wicca blev styrket i 1970’erne og 1980’erne, frembragt af kvinder, der var kommet ind i religionen tiltrukket af den kvindelige guddom, men blev konfronteret med en kvindefjendtlig virkelighed i religionens rækker.

I 1971 startede den wiccanske aktivist Z. Budapest Susan B. Anthony -pagten, der praktiserede Dianic Wicca, en form for matriarkalsk månedyrkelse. Budapest skrev Feministisk skyggernes bog. En række feministiske covens var udvækster fra Budapests coven.

WICCA OG LOVEN

I 1986 blev Wicca anerkendt som en officiel religion i USA gennem retssagen Dettmer v. Landon.

I sagen blev fængslet Wiccan Herbert Daniel Dettmer nægtet rituelle genstande, der blev brugt til tilbedelse. The Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals fastslog, at Wicca var berettiget til beskyttelse af første ændringsforslag som enhver anden religion.

I 1998 fik en Wiccan -studerende i Texas hjælp fra ACLU, efter at skolebestyrelsen forsøgte at forhindre hende i at bære Wiccan -smykker og sort tøj. Bestyrelsen vendte opfattelsen.

I 2004 kæmpede Indiana Civil Liberties Union for at omvende en dommeres beslutning om, at skilsmisse fra Wiccans ikke måtte lære deres sønner deres tro.

I 2005 blev US Army Sgt. Patrick D. Stewart blev den første Wiccan -tjener i det amerikanske militær, der døde i kamp. Hans familie blev nægtet en Wiccan pentacle på hans gravsten. Som et resultat af en retssag, der blev indledt af amerikanerne United for adskillelse af kirke og stat, accepteres Wiccan -symboler nu af Veterans Administration.

Antallet af praktiserende Wiccans i USA har vist sig at være svært at estimere, idet kilder rapporterer alt fra 300.000 til tre millioner udøvere.

KILDER

Moderne Wicca: En historie fra Gerald Gardner til i dag. Michael Howard.
Månens triumf. Ronald Hutton.
Wicca. BBC.


Wicca

Wicca er en neo-hedensk religion, der udviklede sig fra førkristne traditioner i Irland, Skotland og Wales. Opdagelsen af ​​hulemalerier fra mere end 30.000 år siden peger på tanken om, at Wicca faktisk er meget ældre. Religionen er baseret på en ærefrygtindgydende værdsættelse af naturen, og at åndene fra den ene, gudinde og Gud eksisterer i alle ting – naturens ’ s skabninger, træer, blomster og oceaner. Alt på Jorden er guddommeligt.

Mange former og grene af Wicca eksisterer, men Gerald Brousseau Gardner krediteres oftest som dens grundlægger. I begyndelsen af ​​1950'erne hævdede han, at han var en del af en gammel heksekonvention i det sydlige England, og hans skrifter om hekseri blev hjørnestenen for udviklingen af ​​Wicca i hele verden.

I modsætning til hvad der har været populær tro, har Wicca intet at gøre med satanisme eller ondskab. Gennem historien har hekse været uretfærdigt jaget, tugtet og myrdet. I middelalderen var der mange myter om hekseri (alt ondt), og den konnotation blev videreført i århundreder. Selv i de tidlige år af de amerikanske kolonier blev en løgn til Salem -hekseprocesserne.

I maj 2007 tillod U.S. Veteran ’s Administration (efter cirka 10 års forsinkelse) pentaklen at blive placeret på gravstenene til faldne Wiccan og hedenske soldater. Og det amerikanske militær anerkender Wicca som en religion, og folk, der praktiserer religionen, har samme religiøse rettigheder som mennesker med anden tro.

Den mest tilbedte gud i Wicca (og der er mange variationer) er den Hornede Gud, der repræsenterer en maskulin magt. Modstykket er den tredobbelte gudinde, der repræsenterer en kvindelig magt. Den tredobbelte gudinde betegner jomfruen, moderen og kronen.

Wicca -ritualer, magi og magi udføres for godt og fordel for helheden. Magi bruges af Wiccans til at bringe positive ændringer i verden og dens mennesker. Deres overbevisning er at gøre ingen skade, men alligevel beskytte dem mod negative eller onde påvirkninger. Det menes, at enhver udført handling, enten god eller dårlig, vil manifestere sig tre gange større og give plads til en boomerang -effekt. Dette kaldes loven om tre. Magien og magi bruges også til helbredelse, frugtbarhed, kærlighed og kreativitet.

Det mest almindelige symbol er pentagrammet, der symboliserer de fem elementer i Wiccan -tro: luft, jord, ild, vand og ånd. Wiccans har en enorm respekt for jorden og elementerne. De anerkender ændring af årstider, månens faser og naturens cyklusser for at opnå spiritualitet og tilbede det guddommelige. De fleste Wiccans fejrer en cyklus af festivaler hele året, kaldet sabbats eller sabbater. Der er otte af disse fester og er i fællesskab kendt som Årets hjul. De er opdelt i seks eller syv uger, som korrelerer med jordens sæsonmæssige cyklusser.

Grupper af hekse kaldes covens (formelle grupper), hvor de praktiserer deres ritualer og traditioner. Traditioner og lære fra guderne og gudinderne videregives til dets tilhængere ved hjælp af et system bestående af tre grader. Den første grad er for dem, der nyligt kommer i håndværket. Det er det, der betragtes som en initieringsperiode. Den anden grad markerer begyndelsen på at gå en dybere vej inden for lære. Den tredje grad gives til dem, der har opnået viden og har opnået status som ældste inden for deres covens. De er blevet en ypperstepræstinde eller præst.

WICCAN RITUELLE VÆRKTØJ

Ritualværktøjer bruges undertiden af ​​Wiccans. Alle har et bånd til enten elementerne eller guderne, når de arbejder med deres magi. Hvert værktøj skal være indviet og velsignet. Nedenfor er vist nogle af værktøjerne, deres formål og hvad de symboliserer.

Paton – Et alterindvielsesværktøj. Det er normalt indskrevet med en pentakel. Paton er symbolsk for jordelementet. Det er ofte en skål eller tallerken.

Sværd og Athame – Tilknyttet elementet af ild kan det dog i nogle wiccan -traditioner repræsentere luft.

Tryllestav – Symboliserer maskulin energi og forbindes enten med ild eller luft. Staven kan have en mindre aggressiv kvalitet end athamen eller sværdet.

Kalk – Eller bæger. Symbolisk for vandelementet og repræsenterer gudindenes livmoder.

Besom Eller#kost. Bruges til rituelt at#fejre ” den magiske cirkel ren for uønskede energier.

Cingulum Oversætter som bælte eller bælte. Det er normalt en lilla snor, der bæres rundt om livet, men forskellige farver kan betyde forskellige læringsgrader.

De fleste Wiccans har en Book of Shadows der indeholder deres coven ’s hellige skrifter om trylleformularer, praksis, ritualer og overbevisninger. Der er også mange andre værktøjer og smykker, der bruges eller bæres til at repræsentere guderne, gudinderne og elementerne.

FOR AT LÆRE MERE OM ANDRE TEMAER OG SPIRITUALITET, BESØG DEN LÆREVÆRELSE.


Hedenskab

Hedenskab repræsenterer en lang række traditioner, der understreger ærbødighed for naturen og en genoplivning af gamle polyteistiske og animistiske religiøse skikke. Nogle moderne former for hedenskab har deres rødder i europæisk nationalisme fra 1800 -tallet CE (herunder den britiske Druidsorden), men de fleste nutidige hedenske grupper sporer deres umiddelbare organisatoriske rødder til 1960'erne og har vægt på arketypisk psykologi og en åndelig interesse i naturen . Hedenskab er ikke en traditionel religion i sig selv fordi den ikke har nogen officiel doktrin, men den har nogle fælles egenskaber, der forbinder de mange forskellige traditioner. En af de almindelige overbevisninger er den guddommelige tilstedeværelse i naturen og ærbødighed for den naturlige orden i livet. Åndelig vækst er relateret til Jordens cyklusser, og der lægges stor vægt på økologiske bekymringer. Monoteisme afvises næsten universelt inden for hedenskab, og de fleste hedenske traditioner er især interesserede i genoplivning af gamle polyteistiske religiøse traditioner, herunder de nordiske (nordeuropa) og keltiske (Storbritannien) traditioner. Mange hedenske traditioner er bevidst rekonstruktionistiske, idet de har til formål at genoplive mange af de tabte ritualer i de gamle traditioner, herunder hellige dage og sæsonbetonede fester. Udover naturen tilbeder mange hedninger også en række guder og gudinder, herunder ånder, der kan repræsentere nationale og lokale helte samt afdøde familiemedlemmer. I denne forstand forsøger mange hedninger at ære deres aner og forfædre. Nogle hedenske traditioner inkluderer rituel magi, men denne praksis er ikke universel.

Hurtige fakta detaljer:

  • Dannet: Da de religiøse traditioner, som nutidens hedenskaber trækker på og søger at genoprette, er ældgamle, afspejler datoen i begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede kun genoplivningen af ​​den praksis og de samfund, der opretholdes af dem.
  • Oprindelse: Mangfoldigheden af ​​hedenske traditioner omfatter myter, historier og vidnesbyrd fra en lang række førkristne kilder, herunder nordeuropæere såvel som i gamle middelhavssamfund.
  • Følgere: Mangfoldigheden af ​​hedenske traditioner har gjort en omfattende folketælling næsten umulig. Praktionærer påpeger også, at social diskrimination mod hedenskab har forhindret mange i at praktisere åbent.

Hurtige faktakilder omfatte www.adherents.com, www.bbc.co.uk/religion, Oxford Handbook of Global Religions (2006), Religionsens encyklopædi (2005), siden Religious Movements ved University of Virginia, Cambridge illustreret religionshistorie (2002) og Encyclopedia of World Religions (1999).

Don Frew forklarer, hvad det vil sige at være en Wiccan i nutidens verden.


En ny religion er født

I løbet af 1940'erne fortsatte Gardner med at være interesseret i en lang række religiøse og åndelige traditioner og ideer, men han blev dybt påvirket af sine oplevelser med New Forest coven. Til sidst grundlagde han sin egen coven, som han kaldte Bricket Wood, og begyndte at skabe en ny inkarnation af den gamle heksekult, der hentede inspiration fra en lang række kilder, herunder New Forest coveners, elementer fra frimureri og ceremoniel magi og arbejde af andre okkulte figurer, herunder Aleister Crowley og Cecil Williamson. En større tilføjelse, som Gardner udviklede, blev i sidste ende et af Wiccas vigtigste elementer: tilbedelsen af ​​både en gudinde og en gud, der var lig hinanden på alle måder. Dette var ganske unikt efter årtusinder af mandsdominerede, patriarkalske religioner!

Gardner kaldte aldrig sin nye, men gamle religion "Wicca." Nogle gange omtalte han medlemmerne af hans coven som "Wica", som var en gammel engelsk betegnelse for troldmænd og folk, der var dygtige til at spå. Men selve traditionen blev altid omtalt som Hekseri, ofte forkortet til "Håndværket" eller ellers "den gamle religion". Det blev ikke kendt som Wicca i mindst endnu et årti, da det spredte sig til USA og Australien.

På det tidspunkt var der udviklet nye variationer af Gardners skabelse af hans tilhængere og af andre okkultister, hvoraf nogle nu næsten ikke ligner den originale Bricket Wood coven. Faktisk omtaler mange i Storbritannien, der stadig følger Gardners traditioner, da de er gået fra pagt til pagt, deres praksis som britisk traditionel heksekunst. Disse hekse betragter "Wicca" som noget helt andet og har en tendens til at beskrive det som en amerikansk opfindelse. Andre steder i verden er denne originale form af Wicca imidlertid kendt som Gardnerian Wicca.


9 ting, du bør vide om Wicca og moderne hekseri

Et stigende antal unge kvinder - drevet af feministisk politik og #MeToo -bevægelsen - bliver tiltrukket af et nyt mærke af hekseri, ifølge en rapport fra NBC News. Her er ni ting, du bør vide om Wicca og moderne hekseri.

1. Hekseri refererer til verdenssyn, religion og praksis forbundet med at bruge ritualer, der menes at udnytte og fokusere kosmiske eller psykiske energier for at medføre en ønsket ændring. Moderne hekseri er den største og mest almindelige delmængde af neo-hedendom, en mangfoldig gruppe religiøse bevægelser, der hævder at være afledt af historiske hedenske religioner.

2. Inden for trolldomens vækkelsesbevægelse er Wicca den største delmængde. Den amerikanske religiøse identifikationsundersøgelse fra 2008 anslog, at der i USA var omkring 600.000 neo-hedninger, hvor omkring halvdelen identificerede sig som Wiccan. Nogle skøn konkluderer, at der i 2017 var mere end 3 millioner praktiserende Wiccans.

3. I moderne brug betragtes udtrykket "heks" som kønsneutralt og kan gælde for enten mænd eller kvinder. Udtrykket "warlock" betragtes ofte som et nedsættende begreb, da den oprindelige brug af udtrykket betød "ed-breaker". En gruppe hekse, der mødes regelmæssigt, er kendt som en "coven". Nogle hekse mener, at en coven skal have 13 eller færre medlemmer, dog ikke mindre end tre.

4. Wicca blev skabt i 1940'erne af Gerald Brosseau Gardner (1884-1964), en pensioneret britisk embedsmand, en ordineret minister i den kristne sekt kendt som den antikke britiske kirke. Gardner betragtes som "far til moderne hekseri", selvom hans neo-hedenske overbevisning næsten ikke havde forbindelse til ældre former for heksekunst. Hans mærke med wiccanisme (undertiden omtalt som Gardnerian Wicca eller Gardnerian trolddom) blev taget fra mere moderne påvirkninger, såsom frimureri, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn og den engelske okkultist Aleister Crowley. Gardner omtalte sit trossystem som "hekseri" og en "heksekult", og udtrykket "Wicca" dukkede først op i 1962.

5. I 1960'erne og 1970 spredte Wicca sig fra Storbritannien til andre engelsktalende lande, blev tilknyttet de spirende feministiske og miljømæssige bevægelser og delte sig i forskellige "traditioner". Fra Gardnerian Wicca opstod sådanne udløbere som Alexandrian Wicca, Algard Wicca, Georgian Wicca, Druidic Wicca, Seax-Wica og Eclectic Wicca.

6. Den amerikanske regering anerkendte Wicca først officielt som religion i 1985. I en retssag, der involverede en fange (Dettmer v. Landon), hævdede den føderale regering, at læren om Wicca-kirken ikke var en religion, fordi den er en "konglomeration" af "forskellige aspekter af det okkulte, såsom trosheling, selvhypnose, tarotkortlæsning og stavekastning, ingen af ​​dem vil blive betragtet som religiøse skikke, der står alene. ” Retten bemærkede, at regeringen i det væsentlige argumenterede "at fordi hekseri finder ulogisk og internt inkonsekvent, kan hekseri ikke være en religion." Ankenævnet fastslog, at "Wicca Kirke indtager en plads i sine medlemmers liv parallelt med mere konventionelle religioner. Derfor må dens lære betragtes som en religion. ”

7. En almindeligt delt kernetro hos Wicca (såvel som andre former for moderne hekseri) er accept og udøvelse af magi. Wiccan -opfattelsen ligner den for Aleister Crowley, der definerede magi som "videnskaben og kunsten at få forandringer til at ske i overensstemmelse med vilje." Som Wesley Baines siger: “Mange tror magi simpelthen som en anden naturlov, omend en der er dårligt forstået og afskrevet som falsk. Som sådan er magi ikke overnaturlig, men lige så naturlig som tyngdekraften og vinden, og involverer ofte en kombination af påkaldelser, bevægelse, musik, meditation og værktøjer. ” Og som et Wiccan -websted forklarer, “Magick [sic] er et andet ord for transformation, skabelse og manifestation. Wicca magick er et værktøj, vi bruger til at handle på det subtile - eller energi eller kvante - niveau af virkeligheden. Kvantniveauet er årsagssagen. Det er de subtile påvirkninger på kvanteniveau, der afgør, hvilken vej virkeligheden vil gå. ”

8. Bortset fra en tro på magi, er der få overbevisninger, som alle Wiccan -traditioner deler. Den tro, der oftest er forbundet med Wicca, er en variation af Wiccan Rede ("rede" er fra mellemengelsk, hvilket betyder "råd" eller "råd"). Wiccan Rede antages at være formuleret af den wiccanske præstinde Doreen Valiente i begyndelsen af ​​1960'erne, og siger: "Og det skader ingen, gør hvad du vil." Variationer på rede omfatter "At det ikke skader nogen, gør som du vil" og "Gør hvad du vil, så længe det ikke skader nogen."

9. I sine ældre former rummer Wicca et duoteistisk trossystem, der omfatter en kvindelig modergudinde og en mandlig hornet gud. Efterhånden som Wicca er blevet mere påvirket af feminisme, er det imidlertid blevet mere orienteret mod gudstjeneste. Som Jone Salomonsen konkluderer, “Hekser opfatter sig selv som at have forladt Faderens Hus (jødisk og kristen religion) og vendt’ hjem ’til Selvet (Gudinde -religion) med et kald til at helbrede vestlige kvinders (og mænds) fremmedgørelse fra fællesskab og spiritualitet og at blive bøjere for menneskelig og samfundsmæssig udvikling. ” Denne fleksibilitet i at ekskludere/inkludere guder har, som Michael F. Strmiska siger, "gjort det muligt for mennesker med interesse for forskellige guder og religiøse traditioner at tilpasse Wicca, så de passer til deres specifikke interesser, og dermed øge religionens appel til et bredt og voksende medlemskab."

Andre indlæg i denne serie:

Joe Carter er redaktør for The Gospel Coalition, forfatter til Life and Faith Field Guide for Forældre, redaktøren af NIV Lifehacks Bible, og medforfatter til Sådan argumenterer du som Jesus: Lær overtalelse af historiens største kommunikator. Han fungerer også som associeret præst ved McLean Bible Church i Arlington, Virginia. Du kan følge ham på Twitter.


Indflydelse

Det er i dag velkendt, hvorfra hans primære påvirkninger kom:

  • 19.-20. århundrede ceremoniel magi, især den af ​​Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
  • De rituelle strukturer i murværk, også vedtaget ved magiske ordrer
  • 1800 -tallets romantiske opfattelser af gammel hedensk mytologi

Wicca bærer også en vis indflydelse fra ældre hedenske (og ikke-hedenske) traditioner, men de er stykker og nogle gange små stykker passer sammen i nye betydninger og kontekster. For eksempel anerkender Wicca keltiske helligdage som sine fire større sabbater, men betydninger, praksis og overordnede rammer er betydeligt forskellige.


Dels reel dels indbildt

Wicca er en religion, der delvis er baseret på gamle, nordeuropæiske hedenske overbevisninger om en frugtbarhedsgudinde og hendes gemal, en hornet Gud. Selvom religionen er en moderne skabelse, er nogle af dens kilder forud for den kristne æra i mange århundreder. De fleste Wiccans tror ikke, at deres religion er en direkte, kontinuerlig efterkommer af denne tidligere religion. De ser det som en moderne rekonstruktion.

Joanna Hautin-Mayer har skrevet:

"Vi ved tragisk lidt om de gamle kelters egentlige religiøse udtryk. Vi har et par myter og legender, men meget lidt arkæologiske beviser til støtte for vores teorier. Vi har ingen skriftlige optegnelser over deres faktiske tilbedelsesformer, og beretningerne om deres kultur og overbevisning skrevet af deres samtidige er ofte stærkt forudindtaget og af tvivlsom historisk værdi. " 1

Fru Hautin-Mayer er særligt kritisk over for de seneste Neopagan-bøger, som hun viser sig at være stort set fiktive beretninger om Wittas historie 3(præsenteret som en irsk hedensk tradition), Faery Wicca 4(præsenteret som en gammel tradition) og 21 Lessons of Merlyn 5(en noget racistisk og sexistisk beretning om druidisme).

Silver RavenWolf skrev i 1998:

"Wicca, som du praktiserer religionen i dag, er en ny religion, knap halvtreds år gammel. De teknikker, du bruger i øjeblikket, er ikke helt, hvad dine ældste selv praktiserede for tredive år siden. Selvfølgelig flettes tråde af 'what was ' gennem tapetet af 'what er nu. '. på ingen måde kan vi til perfektion kopiere de præcise omstændigheder omkring miljø, samfund, kultur, religion og magi for hundrede år siden eller tusind. Hvorfor ville vi det? Ideen er at gå videre med viden fra fortiden, hærdet af værktøjerne i vores egen tidsalder. " 2

Skrifter, der dannede grundlaget for Wicca:

Meget af nutidens Wicca kan direkte spores tilbage til skrifterne om:

Teorier om Wiccas oprindelse:

Der er mange overbevisninger om Wiccas oprindelse:

Gardner har hævdet, at han efter at have skrevet sine bøger modtog mange breve fra medlemmer af isolerede covens, der havde troet, at deres grupper havde været i kontinuerlig eksistens i generationer eller århundreder.

Andre personer rabatterer dette trossystem og fastholder, at der ikke var nogen kontinuerlig Wiccan -tilstedeværelse fra keltisk tid til det 20. århundrede. De fastholder, at nutidens Wicca blev skabt ved at fusionere et par gamle keltiske overbevisninger, guddommestruktur og sæsonbetonede festdage med moderne materiale fra ceremoniel magik, frimurerordenen osv.
Atter andre sporer Wicca tilbage til en lidt kendt trosgruppe i New England i begyndelsen af ​​det 20. århundrede.

Seneste Wiccan -historie:

Der er enighed om, at Wicca først blev en massebevægelse i nyere tid i England i løbet af 1950'erne med udgivelsen af ​​bøger af Gerald Gardner. Det har ekspanderet med en rasende hastighed i Nordamerika og Europa.

Wicca er en af ​​de største af minoritetsreligionerne i USA. Der er ingen pålidelige skøn over antallet af Wiccans i dette land. Vores bedste skøn er i størrelsesordenen 750.000. Det ville gøre Wicca til den femte største organiserede religion i USA bag kristendom, islam, jødedom og hinduisme. Det er imidlertid stort set ukendt af offentligheden. Dette skyldes, at næsten alle Wiccans skjuler deres religiøse overbevisning og praksis. Dem, der lader deres tro blive kendt offentligt, bliver meget hårdt forfulgt i Nordamerika pr. Indbygger, menes at blive ofret oftere end medlemmer af nogen anden religiøs gruppe. Mange overfald, brandstiftelse og økonomiske angreb rapporteres årligt. Der har endda været skyderier, en offentlig massestening og en lynchning i de seneste år! Der cirkulerer ofte rapporter om misinformerede børnebeskyttelsesofficerer, der beslaglægger børn fra Wiccans hjem, fordi de frygtede, at de ville blive dræbt eller misbrugt i et eller andet satanisk ritual. Gerningsmændene til dette religiøse had er normalt meget troende, meget bekymrede, men frygtelig misinformerede mennesker. De tror på den misinformation, der er blevet spredt om hekser kontinuerligt siden middelalderen. Det er kun i det østlige Massachusetts, det sydlige Californien og i nogle få byer andre steder i Nordamerika, at de fleste Wiccans føler sig sikre nok til at komme ud af (kost) skabet i stort antal. På andre områder har de en tendens til at undgå forfølgelse ved at holde deres religiøse tro hemmelige. Desværre kan denne politik have negative resultater, nogle spekulerer i, at fordi Wiccans forbliver under jorden, skal de have noget at skjule. Dette er en "no-win " situation uden nogen indlysende løsning.

Ovenstående afsnit blev skrevet i midten af ​​1990'erne. Siden da er situationen blevet meget bedre. Mange Wiccans er kommet ud af skabet og åbenbarede deres tro åbent. Offentligheden er blevet meget mere opmærksom på Wicca og andre neopaganske religioner. Hyppigheden af ​​vold er faldet meget, selvom der stadig lejlighedsvis er beretninger om hærværk og økonomiske angreb.

Anvendte referencer:

Følgende informationskilder blev brugt til at forberede og opdatere ovenstående essay. Hyperlinkene er ikke nødvendigvis stadig aktive i dag.


I de tidlige dage, hvor kristendommen langsomt voksede i styrke, var den gamle religion - Wiccans og andre hedninger - en af ​​dens rivaler. Det er helt naturligt at ville slippe af med en rival, og Kirken trak ikke slag for at gøre netop det. Det er ofte blevet sagt, at guderne i en gammel religion bliver en ny djævle. Dette var bestemt tilfældet her. Den gamle religions gud var en horn med gud. Så tilsyneladende var den kristne djævel. Det var tydeligvis, som kirkernes begrundelse, at hedningerne var djæveldyrkere! Denne form for ræsonnement bruges af Kirken selv i dag. Missionærer var særligt tilbøjelige til at mærke alle primitive stammer, som de faldt over som djæveldyrkere, bare fordi stammen tilbad en eller flere guder end den kristne. Det ville ikke gøre noget, at folket levede godt, lykkeligt, ofte moralsk og etisk bedre end langt de fleste kristne, de skulle konverteres!Beskyldningen for djæveldyrkelse, der så ofte rettes mod hekser, er latterlig. Djævelen er en rent kristen opfindelse, og der er ikke omtalt ham som sådan før Det Nye Testamente. Faktisk er det interessant at bemærke, at hele begrebet ondskab i forbindelse med Djævelen skyldes en fejl i oversættelsen. Det oprindelige gamle testamente hebraiske Ha-satan og det nytestamentlige græske diabolos betyder simpelthen “-modstander ” eller “-modstander ”. Det skal huskes, at tanken om at dele den Højeste Magt i to - godt og ondt - er tanken om en avanceret og kompleks civilisation. De gamle guder var gennem deres gradvise udvikling i høj grad “human ” i og med at de ville have deres gode side og deres dårlige side. It was the idea of an all-good, all-loving deity which necessitated an antagonist. In simple language, you can only have the color white if there is an opposite color, black, to which you can compare it. This view of an all-good god was developed by Zoroaster (Zarathustra), in Persia in the seventh century BCE. The idea later spread westward and was picked up in Mithraism and, later,
in Christianity.As Christianity gradually grew in strength, so the Old Religion was slowly pushed back. Back until, about the time of the Reformation, it only existed in the outlying country districts. Non-Christians at that time became known as Pagans and Heathens. “Pagan” comes from the Latin Pagani and simply means “people who live in the country”. The word “Heathen” means “one who dwells on the heath”. So the terms were appropriate for non-Christians at that time, but they bore no connotations of evil and their use today in a derogatory sense is quite incorrect.As the centuries passed, the smear campaign against non-Christians continued. What the Wiccans did was reversed and used against them. They did magick to promote fertility and increase the crops the Church claimed that they made women and cattle barren and blighted the crops! No one apparently stopped to think that if the Witches really did what they were accused of, they would suffer equally themselves. After all, they too had to eat to live. An old ritual act for fertility was for the villagers to go to the fields in the light of the full moon and to dance around the field astride pitchforks, poles and broomsticks riding them like hobby horses.They would leap high in the air as they danced, to show the crops how high to grow. A harmless enough form of sympathetic magick. But the Church claimed not only that they were working against the crops, but that they actually flew through the air on their poles … surely the work of the Devil!

In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII produced his Bull against Witches. Two years later two infamous German monks, Heinrich Institoris Kramer and Jakob Sprenger, produced their incredible concoction of anti-Witchery, the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witch Hammer). In this book definite instructions were given for the prosecution of Witches. However, when the book was submitted to the Theological Faculty of the University of Cologne—the appointed censor at that time—the majority of the professors refused to have anything to do with it. Kramer and Sprenger, nothing daunted, forged the approbation of the whole faculty a forgery that was not discovered until 1898.Gradually the hysteria kindled by Kramer and Sprenger began to spread. It spread like a fire—flashing up suddenly in unexpected places spreading quickly across the whole of Europe. For nearly three hundred years the fires of the persecutions raged. Humankind had gone mad. The inhabitants of entire villages where one or two Witches were suspected of living, were put to death with the cry: “Destroy them all… the Lord will know his own!” In 1586 the Archbishop of Treves decided that the local Witches had caused the recent severe winter. By dint of frequent torture a “confession” was obtained and one hundred twenty men and women were burned to death on his charge that they had interfered with the elements.Since fertility was of great importance—fertility of crops and beasts—there were certain sexual rites enacted by the Wicca, as followers of the nature religion. These sexual rites seem to have been given unnecessary prominence by the Christian judges, who seemed to delight in prying into the most minute of details concerning them. The rites of the Craft were joyous in essence. It was an extremely happy religion and so was, in many ways, totally incomprehensible to the gloomy Inquisitors and Reformers who sought to suppress it.A rough estimate of the total number of people burned, hung or tortured to death on the charge of Witchcraft, is nine million. Obviously not all of these were followers of the Old Religion. This had been a wonderful opportunity for some to get rid of anyone against whom they bore a grudge!’ An excellent example of the way in which the hysteria developed and spread is found in the case of the so-called Witches of Salem, Massachusetts. It is doubtful if any of the victims hung* there were really followers of the Old Religion. Just possibly Bridget Bishop and Sarah Good were, but the others were nearly all pillars of the local church up until the time the hysterical children “cried out” on them.But what about Satanism? The Witches were called worshippers of the Devil. Was there any truth to this? No. Yet as with so many of the charges, there was reason for the belief. The early Church was extremely harsh on its people. It not only governed the peasants’ way of worship but also their ways of life and love. Even between married couples, sexual intercourse was frowned upon. It was felt that there should be no joy from the act, it being permitted solely for procreation. Intercourse was illegal on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays for forty days before Christmas and a similar time before Easter for three days prior to receiving communion, and from the time of conception to forty days after paturition. In other words, there was a grand total of approximately two months in the year only when it was possible to have sexual relations with your spouse … but without deriving pleasure from it, of course!It was no wonder that this, together with other such harshness, led to a rebellion—albeit a clandestine one. The people—this time the Christians—finding that their lot was not bettered by praying to the so-called God of Love, decided to pray to his opposite instead. If God wouldn’t help them, perhaps the Devil would. So Satanism came into being. A parody of Christianity a mockery of it. It was a revolt against the harshness of the Church. As it turned out the “Devil” did not help the poor peasant either. But at least he was showing his disdain for the authorities he was going against the establishment. It did not take Mother Church long to find out about this rebellion. Satanism was anti-Christian. Witchcraft was also—in their eyes—anti-Christian. Ergo, Witchcraft and Satanism were one and the same.In 1604 King James I passed his Witchcraft Act, but this was repealed in 1736. It was replaced by an Act that stated that there was no such thing as Witchcraft and to pretend to have occult powers was to face being charged with fraud. By the late seventeenth century the surviving members of the Craft had gone underground into hiding. For the next three hundred years, to all appearances Witchcraft was dead. But a religion which had lasted twenty thousand years, in effect, did not die so easily. In small groups—surviving covens, of times only of family members—the Craft continued.In the literary field Christianity had a heyday. Printing had been invented and developed during the persecutions, therefore anything published on the subject of Witchcraft was written from the Church’s point of view. Later books had only these early works to which to refer so, not unnaturally, they were heavily biased against the Old Religion. In fact it was not until 1921, when Dr. Margaret Alice Murray produced The Witch Cult In Western Europe, that anyone looked at Witchcraft with anything like an unbiased light. From studying the records of the trials of the Middle Ages, Murray (an eminent anthropologist and then Professor of Egyptology at London University) picked up the clues that seemed to her to indicate that there was a definite, organized, pre-Christian religion behind all the “hogwash” of the Christian allegations. Although her theories finally proved a little far-fetched in some areas, she did indeed strike some chords. Wicca was by no means as far-reaching and widespread as Murray suggested (nor was there proof of a direct, unbroken line of descent from the cavepeople), but there can be no doubt that it did exist as an indubitable religious cult, if sporadic as to time and place. She enlarged on her views in a second book, The God of the Witches, in 1931.

In England, in 1951, the last laws against Witchcraft were finally repealed. This cleared the way for the Witches themselves to speak up. In 1954 Dr. Gerald Brousseau Gardner, in his book Witchcraft Today, said, in effect, ‘What Margaret Murray has theorized is quite true. Witchcraft was a religion and in fact it still is. I know, because I am a Witch myself.” He went on to tell how the Craft was still very much alive, albeit underground. He was the first to give the Witches’ side of the story. At the time of his writing it seemed, to him, that the Craft was rapidly declining and perhaps only hanging on by a thread. He was greatly surprised when, as a result of the circulation of his books, he began to hear from many covens throughout Europe, all still happily practicing their beliefs. Yet these surviving covens had learned their lesson. They did not wish to take the chance of coming out into the open. Who was to say the persecutions could not start again?For a while Gerald Gardner’s was the single voice speaking for the Craft. However, whatever one’s feelings about Gardner, whatever one’s belief in the Wicca’s origins, all present-day Witches and would-be Witches owe him a tremendous debt of gratitude for having had the courage to stand up and speak out for Witchcraft. It is because of him that we can enjoy the Craft, in its many forms, today.In America the first Witch to “stand up and be recognized” was Raymond Buckland. At that time there were no covens visible in this country. Initiated in Scotland (Perth) by Gardner’s High Priestess, Buckland set out to emulate Gardner insofar as to try to straighten the long-held misconceptions and to show the Craft for what it truly is. Soon Sybil Leek arrived on the scene, followed by Gavin and Yvonne Frost and other individuals. It was an exciting time as more and more covens, and many different traditions, came intonthe open or at least made themselves known. Today the would-be Witch has a wide selection from which to choose: Gardnerian, Celtic (in many variations), Saxon, Alexandrian, Druidic, Algard, Norse, Irish, Scottish, Sicilian, Huna, etc. That there are so many, and such varied, branches (“denominations” or “traditions”) of Witchcraft is admirable. We are all different. It is not surprising that there is no one religion that suits all people. In the same way, then, there can be no one type of Witchcraft to suit all Witches. Some like lots of ritual, while some are for simplicity. Some are from Celtic backgrounds, others from Saxon, Scots, Irish, Italian, or any of a number of others. Some favor a matriarchy others a patriarchy and still others seek a balance. Some prefer to worship in a group (coven), while others are for solitary worship. With the large number of different denominations, then, there is now more likelihood of everyone finding a path they can travel in comfort. Religion has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the caves of pre-history. Witchcraft, as one small facet of religion, has also come a long way. It has grown to become a world wide religion, legally recognized.Today, across America, it is not at all unusual to find open Wiccan festivals and seminars taking place in such unlikely places as family campgrounds and motels such as the Holiday Inn. Witches appear on television and radio talk shows they are written up in local and national newspapers and magazines. Witchcraft courses are given in colleges. Even in the Armed Forces is Wicca recognized as a valid religion— Department of the
Army Pamphlet No. 165-13 “Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups—A Handbook for Chaplains” includes instructions as to the religious rights of Witches right alongside those of Islamic groups, Sikh groups, Christian Heritage, Indian Heritage, Japanese and Jewish groups.

Yes, Witchcraft has a place in past history and will have a definite place in the future.

–Excerpt from Buckland Complete Book of Witchcraft
Raymond Buckland, Author


Pagan History 102Pagan History is a website devoted to investigating the ancient roots of modern Paganism. Read full story

History of Paganism – A classic joke among pagans is that if you ask four pagans to define paganism, your will usually receive five answers. Some use the broad definition that Paganism is the practice of religion outside the Abrahamic monotheistic religions encompassing Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Another definition supported by the On-line Etymology Dictionary is that Pagans were those individuals that adhered to the old gods after the Christianization of Roman towns and cities. “Paganus” was Roman military jargon for “civilian, incompetent soldier” and rising Christians used this imagery to refer to those who were not “soldiers of Christ.” Another definition supported by Random House dictionary was that it was derived from the Latin word “pagus” or village and thus referred to a country-dweller — probably similar to calling someone a “hick” or “red-neck.” The term therefore would describe someone that continued to practice the local rural customs rather than the religions being observed in the cities. The definition that makes the most sense to me is that Pagan is an umbrella term for groups that practice nature-based religious practices. This can include many modern religions to include Shamanism, Wicca, Asatru, Church of All Worlds, and Druidry. Read full story

History of Modern Paganism – Contemporary Paganism is the restoration of indigenous religion, especially that of ancient Europe. Paganism has grown in popularity greatly during the last hundred years. The growth coincides with a decline in Christianity in Europe, and the increase in knowledge of past and distant cultures. Read full story

Pagan Movements – The origins of modern Paganism and Witchcraft continue to be hotly debated and discussed among practitioners. This is not intended to be anything like an exhaustive history, but rather an introduction to some of the main strands of modern Paganism. (For an exhaustive history of British Witchcraft, I highly recommend Ronald Hutton’s Triumph of the Moon. A more wide-ranging history of American Pagan movements can be found in Margot Adler’s Drawing Down the Moon.) Read full story


Why Witchcraft Is on the Rise

Americans’ interest in spell-casting tends to wax as instability rises and trust in establishment ideas plummets.

J uliet Diaz said she was having trouble not listening to my thoughts. “Sorry, I kind of read into your head a little bit,” she told me when, for the third time that August afternoon, she answered one of my (admittedly not unpredictable) questions about her witchcraft seconds before I’d had a chance to ask it. She was drinking a homemade “grounding” tea in her apartment in a converted Victorian home in Jersey City, New Jersey, under a dream catcher and within sight of what appeared to be a human skull. We were surrounded by nearly 400 houseplants, the earthy smell of incense, and, according to Diaz, several of my ancestral spirit guides, who had followed me in. “You actually have a nun,” Diaz informed me. “I don’t know where she comes from, and I’m not going to ask her.”

Diaz describes herself as a seer capable of reading auras and connecting with “the other side” a plant whisperer who can communicate with her succulents and one in a long line of healers in her family, which traces its roots to Cuba and the indigenous Taíno people, who settled in parts of the Caribbean. She is also a professional witch: Diaz sells anointing oils and “intention infused” body products in her online store, instructs more than 8,900 witches enrolled in her online school, and leads witchy workshops that promise to leave attendees “feeling magical af!” In 2018, Diaz, the author of the best-selling book Witchery: Embrace the Witch Within, earned more than half a million dollars from her magic work and was named Best Witch—yes, there are rankings—by Spirit Guides Magazine.

Now 38 years old, Diaz remembers that when she was growing up, her family’s spellwork felt taboo. But over the past few years, witchcraft, long viewed with suspicion and even hostility, has transmuted into a mainstream phenomenon. The coven is the new squad: There are sea witches, city witches, cottage witches, kitchen witches, and influencer witches, who share recipes for moon water or dreamy photos of altars bathed in candlelight. There are witches living in Winnipeg and Indiana, San Francisco and Dubai hosting moon rituals in Manhattan’s public parks and selling $11.99 hangover cures that “adjust the vibration of alcohol so that it doesn’t add extra density and energetic ‘weight’ to your aura.” A 2014 Pew Research Center report suggested that the United States’ adult population of pagans and Wiccans was about 730,000—on par with the number of Unitarians. But Wicca represents just one among many approaches to witchery, and not all witches consider themselves pagan or Wiccan. These days, Diaz told me, “everyone calls themselves witches.”

What exactly they mean by that can vary from witch to witch. According to the anthropologist Rodney Needham’s 1978 book, Primordial Characters, scholars’ working definition of a witch was, at that time, “someone who causes harm to others by mystical means.” To Diaz, a witch is “an embodiment of her truth in all its power” among other magic practitioners, witch might embody a religious affiliation, political act, wellness regimen, “hot new lewk,” or some combination of the above. “I’m doing magic when I march in the streets for causes I believe in,” Pam Grossman, a witch and an author, wrote in a New York Times op-ed.

Casting spells and assembling altars have become quite lucrative. You can attend a fall-equinox ritual organized by Airbnb, sign up for subscription witch boxes offering the equivalent of Blue Apron for magic-making, and buy aura cleanses on Etsy. Instagram’s reigning witch influencer, Bri Luna, has more than 450,000 followers and has collaborated with Coach, Refinery29, and Smashbox, for which she recently introduced a line of cosmetics “inspired by the transformative quality of crystals.”

Many professional witches, including Diaz, can also be hired to do magic on your behalf. Diaz’s most popular offering is her Ancestral Candle Service, a $45 ritual for manifesting intentions that I’d come to her apartment to try. (“Last month we had 4 pregnancies, 33 job promotions, 12 business startups, 12 wedding proposals! and 4 court wins,” claimed a promotional email.) Diaz—who grew up on food stamps, was homeless for parts of college, and, as an adult, sometimes skipped lunch to save up for rent—said she has “manifested an entirely new life” from her candle work. Features of that new life include her book deal, its best-seller status, her store, and a stronger relationship with her husband. She performs up to 100 candle services each month, and said she usually sells out within a day.

Good luck tracing the history of witches. While the idea of witches is exceptionally old—Horace’s Satires, already embracing the negative stereotype circa 35 b.c. , describes witches with wigs and false teeth howling over dead animals—the day-to-day business of being a witch has continuously evolved, which complicates attempts to reconstruct a tidy family tree. The history of witchcraft has also long suffered from unreliable narrators. The Salem witch trials loom outsize in the American imagination, yet no official court records exist, and the accounts of the trials that did survive are, per the historian Stacy Schiff, “maddeningly inconsistent.”

More recent historians haven’t fared much better: The Wicca faith grew out of the writings of Gerald Gardner, a former customs officer whose 1954 book, Witchcraft Today, recounted his experience in a coven whose tenets were allegedly passed down from the Middle Ages. But scholars later concluded that they were at least in part Gardner’s invention.

And then, no culture can claim a monopoly on witches. “There is little doubt that in every inhabited continent of the world, the majority of recorded human societies have believed in, and feared, an ability by some individuals to cause misfortune and injury to others by non-physical and uncanny (‘magical’) means,” writes the historian Ronald Hutton, who has studied attitudes toward witches in more than 300 communities, in places such as sub-Saharan Africa and Greenland. The belief in witchcraft is so widespread and so enduring that one historian speculates it’s innate to being human.

In the U.S., mainstream interest in witches has occasionally waned but mostly waxed, usually in tandem with the rise of feminism and the plummeting of trust in establishment ideas. In the 19th century, as transcendentalism and the women’s-suffrage movement took hold, witches enjoyed the beginnings of a rebranding—from wicked devil-worshippers to intuitive wisewomen. Woodstock and second-wave feminism were a boon for witches, whose popularity spiked again following the Anita Hill hearings in the ’90s, and again after Donald Trump’s election and alongside the #MeToo movement.

The latest witch renaissance coincides with a growing fascination with astrology, crystals, and tarot, which, like magic, practitioners consider ways to tap into unseen, unconventional sources of power—and which can be especially appealing for people who feel disenfranchised or who have grown weary of trying to enact change by working within the system. (Modern witchcraft has drawn more women than men, as well as many people of color and queer or transgender individuals a “witch” can be any gender.) “The more frustrated people get, they do often turn to witchcraft, because they’re like, ‘Well, the usual channels are just not working, so let’s see what else is out there,’ ” Grossman told me. “Whenever there are events that really shake the foundations of society”—the American Civil War, turmoil in prerevolutionary Russia, the rise of Weimar Germany, England’s postwar reconstruction—“people absolutely turn towards the occult.” Trump must contend not only with the #Resistance but with the #MagicResistance, which shares guides to hexing corporations, spells to protect reproductive rights, and opportunities to join the 4,900 members of the #BindTrump Facebook group in casting spells to curb the president’s power.

Throughout history, attempts to control women have masqueraded as crackdowns on witchcraft, and for some people, simply self-identifying as a witch—a symbol of strong female power, especially in the face of the violent, misogynistic backlash that can greet it—is a form of activism. “Witchcraft is feminism, it’s inherently political,” Gabriela Herstik, a witch and an author, told Sabat magasin. “It’s always been about the outsider, about the woman who doesn’t do what the church or patriarchy wants.”

Diaz’s own history of witchcraft long predates the 2016 election. She said that she had her first vision at age 5, was taught by her mother to make potions to cure her nightmares in elementary school, and quietly used her gifts as a seer while working in crime-scene forensics after college. Ten years ago, following what she says was guidance from her ancestors’ spirits, she quit her job, divorced her first husband, and threw herself full-time into working as a witch.

Diaz, a self-described “plant witch,” draws extensively on Taíno traditions and herbs, jars of which occupy almost an entire room of her apartment. But the fact that there are no set criteria for being a witch is, for many, precisely the appeal. Witchcraft beckons with the promise of a spirituality that is self-determined, antipatriarchal, and flexible enough to incorporate varied cultural traditions.

Which is not to say anything goes. Although Diaz has emerged as a leading voice for an inclusive, no-wrong-answers form of witchery, she and others prickle at the creeping tendency to claim the witch label without actually practicing magic. “A lot of girls, young girls, they post pictures of their house with their room with upside-down crosses, Goth clothes, with their potions. They don’t even practice witchcraft, and they’re like, ‘Oh, I’m a witch,’ ” Diaz told me. “It takes away from the sacredness of the word.” Diaz also says she’s troubled by what she sees as the commodification of witchcraft—though, of course, she’s benefited from its commercial appeal—and the cultural appropriation that’s come with it, such as white witches borrowing from indigenous or African-diasporic traditions. Palo Santo, a wood that is traditionally burned by shamans and is now a staple of yoga studios everywhere, can be purchased from Urban Outfitters, Bloomingdale’s, Madewell, Anthropologie, the Whitney Museum of American Art, Crate and Barrel’s CB2, and, once it’s back in stock there, Goop. (In her own store, Diaz aims to source from indigenous people and sell only products she develops herself.)

Despite all this, calling oneself a witch can still be risky. Grossman told me she’s received letters from numerous people who fear that if they openly embraced magic, they “would be either fired from their jobs, or have their kids taken away, or be kicked out of their families.” The stakes are even higher in other parts of the world, where, per a 2009 United Nations report, being labeled a witch remains “tantamount to receiving a death sentence.” Amid a rise in witchcraft-related abuse—including the case of an 8-year-old who was tortured to death in 2000—London established a police team dedicated to reducing violence targeting accused witches by contrast, officials in Saudi Arabia established an antiwitchery unit that trains police to “scientifically battle witchcraft,” which is punishable by beheading.

On a brocaded ottoman beside her couch, Diaz set out a tray containing the ingredients necessary for her candle ritual, which included a vial of straw-thin mouse bones (“for speed”), a snake carcass suspended in milky liquid (“for protection”), and frankincense oil (for “opening up a portal for the candle and sending a message into the roots of the wax”). She lit a stick of Palo Santo wood and wafted its smoke over each item, carefully encircling a tall candle that she said she would “fix” with my intention, then burn later in the sacred area she maintains in her basement.

Diaz told me my intention should be specific, one I hadn’t already made in the past 30 days, and couldn’t be to make someone fall in love with me. I settled on a classic intention: money. Specifically, I was hoping to get paid for an outstanding invoice and get a friend to return money I’d lent her a year before.


Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos